Temperaments (Mizaj)

Hippocrates, the greatest Greek sage, studied human behavior in 400 BC. He realized that we humans have similarities and differences in our behaviors. He divided people into four categories: demoi, bile, soda, and phlegm. In his view, we humans are each unique, yet we fall into a limited category.

Ancient Greek philosophers believed that in nature there were four primary elements of water, air, earth, and fire, called elemental elements or quadruple elements, and that all changes in nature were due to the fusion of these four elements and their re-separation. Takes. They considered each of these elements to have one of the properties of heat, cold, wet or dry. The basis of the School of Mixed Medicine, which is considered to be the founder of Hippocrates, is the existence of 4 main fluids or sputum in the human body and animals, which are related to these 4 elements, which are:

Blood or tail that is warmer
Bile that is hot and dry
Soda that is cold and dry
My phlegm is cold and wet


Hippocrates considered the involvement of these four fluids in all physical conditions, including physiological changes and the emergence of diseases and improving the condition of patients, and believed that whenever these four fluids are relatively normal and in balance with each other in the body, the body is healthy. But if one or more of these fluids changes for some reason, such as malnutrition, bad breath, or severe heat, etc., quantitatively or qualitatively, the balance of these fluids is disturbed, and in this case the natural structure The body changes and has an adverse effect on a person’s health.

Mixed medicine has dominated the principles of medicine throughout the world for 16 centuries, and all physicians around the world have more or less followed it. Mixed medicine certainly existed before Hippocrates, and that physician-scientist adapted its principles from its predecessors.

Later, scholars and scientists such as Abu Ali Sina, Zakaria Razi, and Seyyed Ismail Jorjani revived traditional medicine from ancient Greece. In traditional Iranian medicine, temperaments form the basis of medicine and temperament has a very special place. It was believed that the patient’s condition would not be curable until the patient’s mood was determined. Ibn Sina believed that one who did not know nature and temperament was not a physician.

Temperament is a very broad and scientific science that has many applications for diagnosing and treating physical and mental problems. In fact, all aspects of our lives are affected by the nature of our bodies.

Temperament means the combination of four sputums of bile, tail, soda, phlegm. The more prevalent each of these four mixtures, the more we call that person.

The main temperaments can be classified into 9 categories as follows:
1- People in whom the element of air is more than other elements have a warmer temperament and they are called temperament demos.
2- People in whom the element of fire is more than other elements, have a hot and dry temperament and call them bile temperament.
3- People in whom the element of soil is more than other elements, have a cold and dry temperament and call them melancholy temperament.
4- People in whom the element of water is more than other elements have a cold and wet temperament and they are called temperament phlegm.
5 – People in whom the elements of air and fire are more than other elements, have a warm temperament and are temperate in terms of wetness and drought.
6- People in whom the elements of air and water are more than other elements, have a more temperament and are moderate in terms of warmth and coldness.
7- People in whom the elements of fire and soil are more than other elements, have a dry temperament and are moderately warm and cold.
8- People in which the elements of soil and water are more than other elements, have a cold temper and are temperate in terms of wetness and drought.
9- In some people, these elements are relatively balanced, these people have a moderate temperament.

Temperament is a temporary and changeable state and every person has a temperament. Each person’s natural or primary temperament is a temperament that has been with him since birth and is a natural state for that person. This temperament is passed on through genes from parent to person and is formed under the influence of the environmental conditions of the uterus, the mother’s physical and mental condition, and the foods that the mother eats during pregnancy and lactation.

The physical characteristics of each person depend greatly on the initial temperament that developed during puberty or during physical changes. However, over time, this initial temperament may change as a result of nutrition, weather conditions, lifestyle, job type, and other factors, and a new temperament may develop in the individual, called acquired temperament.

This acquired temperament affects a person’s appearance. For example, a person with the initial temperament of a demo, if it becomes phlegm, its skin becomes lighter than before, or if it becomes melancholy, it becomes thinner and its skin becomes darker than before. Or someone may have been born with a phlegmatic temperament and later changed to a melancholy temperament due to illness or malnutrition or other factors and lost weight in adulthood. Or, for example, a person with phlegm temperament has white skin as a child, and if his acquired temperament becomes demo, his skin becomes pink and prone to pimples.

However, acquired temperament cannot have much effect on some of the physical characteristics formed with a person’s initial temperament, such as ossification or eye color. For example, if a person is born with a melancholy temperament and has a fine skeleton, if his temperament later changes to bile, his body’s muscles will increase, although his skeleton will not change.

In the view of traditional medicine, people’s spirits and physical characteristics are compatible with their temperament. In proportion to the increase and decrease of existential elements, moods and moods, skin and face color, enthusiasm, ambitions, diseases, etc. will change. Each temperament has its own symptoms and characteristics.

The type of food we eat can have a huge impact on all parts of our body, from the brain to the heart, and the stomach, liver and kidneys. In some mood swings, eating the wrong foods can have many consequences. You must have seen people whose bodies boil even when they eat a date. Food and drink that is inappropriate for your mood can cause changes in sleep, nervousness, memory impairment, indigestion, bowel movements, skin problems, liver and heart problems, and genitals. To moderate the nature of a food, it can be used in combination with other foods that have a different nature, as a correction, for example, to moderate our cold, we can taste it with shallots.

In addition to food, environment, behaviors and emotions such as happiness, fear, anxiety, and excitement also affect mood. Inhaled air, daily rest, how the body excretes, and the nervous and mental state are directly related to mood swings.

For example, in the Indian subcontinent, the climate is such that they do not have a temperate climate. This means that everyone is either thin or very fat and does not have a demo person. Also, there are few temperamental people in the cities today, but in the villages of cold regions such as Azerbaijan, where people eat healthy food, there are more democrats who usually have large bodies.

The healthiest person is someone who has a moderate amount of warmth-coldness and dryness of the body. In this state, moderate weight, moderate morality and the sum of body and soul, the appearance and interior of all become moderate. Of course, we should compare each person only with his predecessor and not with others. So when we are healthy, these four sputum is in moderation in the body. This is possible if we recognize the amount of “dryness and wetness” and “coldness and warmth” of our body and keep our mood and temperament moderate by balancing our sleep, food and activities based on weather and living conditions.

Take things in stride and try not focus too much on the problem, or you’ll be overwhelmed by temper tantrums. Sometimes stress, nervous breakdowns, poor nutrition, rough diets, or extreme abstinence can cause one or two other mood swings to overwhelm you. In this case, by eating each food, one of these temperaments reacts. As mood swings increase, they become more difficult to treat, although not impossible. Remember that exaggeration does not bring balance. So keep your balance. For example, if you want to reduce the dominance of soda, do not eat all the hot and wet laxatives at once, because then your soda will be temporarily reduced and may even cause the tail to overflow. Or, for example, sometimes patients experience high blood pressure so much that soda prevails and other diseases are added to them. Therefore, achieving balance requires gentle and continuous habits and diet.

Traditional healers consider people with thin faces and skin attached to bones to have a dry temperament. If a person has small limbs and upper body, it is a sign of a cold temper. Weak pulse and fine muscles are other symptoms of a cold. People with a wide torso, muscles, large limbs, prominent arteries, and a strong pulse are hot-tempered.

If the hair growth rate is high, it is a sign of hot temper, and if the hair growth rate is low, it is a sign of cold temper. If hair growth is too fast, it is due to the heat and dryness of the temperament. Body hair is the cause of hot temper and thinning hair is the reason for cold and wet temperament. Thinning hair can be a sign of cold and wet temper. In addition, having straight and bare hair is another symptom of a cold and wet temperament, while the thick and curly hair is the reason for the warmth and dryness of the temperament. In general, dark and rough hair is a sign of a person with a warm temperament and light, thin and bare hair is a sign of a person with a cold temperament.

If the color of the body’s excrement is darker or more foul-smelling than usual, it is because of the warmth of the mood. But the colorlessness or fading of the body’s waste products indicates a cold temper. Stability in memory is the cause of dry temper. Forgetfulness, instability in memory, and imbalance and hesitation indicate temperament.

Basically, warm temperaments, ie demos and bile ducts, have a high power in terms of physical functions and vital characteristics, because heat increases the function of various organs of the body, from the nerves to the genitals. All body functions, including growth rate, tooth growth, maturity, liver activity, heart and brain, etc., are affected by a person’s temperament. If these functions are performed faster than normal, the reason is the temperament, and if it is slower, the reason is the temperament.

If bile or tail prevails at puberty, it will grow taller. Therefore, it is better for the phlegm to eat hot and dry food at the age of puberty so that their height does not decrease. At puberty, the body dries out, and Sudavis are better off eating warmer foods to make their bones bigger. Demons and gallstones also keep their temperament moderate.

Due to the personality traits of temperaments, if two warm-tempered people are together, they are more likely to be involved in conflict than two cold-tempered people.

In traditional medicine, the cause of insomnia is dryness of the temperament, and excessive sleep is the reason for the cold and wet temper. People with a dry temper are more likely to have insomnia. To improve their sleep, these people need to reduce the dryness of their temperament and inject more into their body.
Excessive and heavy sleep increases body moisture, and a continuous sleep of seven or eight hours cools the body. If you are sleep deprived and are awake and working most of the day, or you are busy with something, you are in the group of people who have a hot and dry temperament. Moderate sleep and wakefulness is the reason for temperance.
Usually in the spring, people are constantly yawning and sleeping more and more easily, due to the warmer temperament of this season, which is in harmony with the temperament of sleep. Even the sleepless sleep easier in the spring.

If you think you’re going to experience a good night’s sleep at the same time as exercising, you know you’re wrong, and you’re probably going to have more sleepless nights. Because exercise perspiration warms and dries the body and makes the person more sleepless.

It should be noted that some diseases are characterized by heating or cooling a part of the body, which leads to errors in the diagnosis. For example, anemia is characterized by cold fingers and toes, or menopause, which causes hot flashes on the head and face. Blood fats, especially cholesterol, can cause hot feet. Stomach swelling causes a feeling of extreme cold in the middle of the chest, and sinusitis causes a severe cold in the forehead. You need to identify these exceptions and separate them from your dominant nature.

Of course, there are those who have problems with the least heat or with the least cold, which may be due to poor temperament, which is a sign of cold body, and unfortunately in many cases are mistakenly classified as hot and humid or moderate. .

Every temperament has its pros and cons, and the notion that a certain temperament is good and that a temperament is bad is fundamentally wrong. Every person with any temperament has talent and ability in some areas and has problems in some issues. In this case, you should overcome your disabilities by knowing the weaknesses and observing the balance. For example, just as a phlegmatic person should try to cure his laziness, a gallbladder is tormented to control the problem of anger and aggression.

Expect each person based on their temperament. If we know that each temperament is talented in a particular field, we will not have the same expectations of everyone, and it will be easier for us to cope with many of the encounters and reactions of those around us. If we are aware of our temperament and the characteristics of ourselves and those around us, we may reduce many of our problems with others.

The greatest goal of traditional medicine is to balance people’s moods. To have a healthy, natural life and peace of mind, we all need to know our temperament or nature. Knowing and being aware of temperaments and natures helps us to have a better life and to be more careful in important life decisions such as choosing a job, marriage, and so on.

%d bloggers like this: